Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Analysis of the Extract from the Novel “to Kill a...

The analysis of the extract from the novel â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird† by Harper Lee. Ostrikova Veronika Nelle Harper Lee was born April 28, 1926. She is an American novelist, who has published only one novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Born in Monroeville, Alabama, she studied law at the University of Alabama, then spent a year in the United Kingdom, studying at Oxford. Living in New York City, she supported herself working as an airline reservation clerk, but was soon determined to pursue a career in writing. She left her job and put together a series of short stories about life in the South, which she first submitted for publication in 1957. Encouraged by her editor, she worked the stories into a novel, To Kill a Mockingbird which was a†¦show more content†¦The author represents the Atticus’s speech in direct form. If it was represented indirectly, the reader would not hear the lawyer’s voice. On the contrary, the author’s point of view would prevail and the reader could think the author foist his opinion. Atticus words in direct speech h ave more effect on the reader. It creates such atmosphere as if the reader is in the court himself. The general atmosphere of this abstract is rather tense. The author keeps the reader in suspense till the very end. The readers take their breath wishing to know that the Negro is innocent. But the author uses the effect of defeated expectancy. In my opinion, the climax in this text is the verdict of the jury. Every â€Å"guilty† destroys any reader’s hope for justice. And this is exactly what the author wished to convey. She claims all men are created equal. That means all men have equal rights no matter what colour skin he or she has. People think with stereotypes. All Negroes lie, all Negroes are basically immoral beings, all Negro men are not to be trusted around the woman. But the reality can be the exact opposite of it. There are good Negroes and bad Whites. The author used parallel constructions to emphasize how narrow-minded people could be when they generalize. The court is probably the only place where all generalizations should be avoided. It is a crime to find somebody guilty without worthy evidence and proofs. Scout analyses the speech itself. TheShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of to Kill a Mockingbird2365 Words   |  10 PagesI’d like to analyze the extract from a book which is entitled â€Å"To kill a mockingbird†. The author is Harper Lee, an American author known for her 1960-Pulitzer-Prize-winning and who is considered now by many to be a literary icon. Harper Lee was born in 1926 in the state of Alabama. In 1945-1949 she studied law at the University of Alabama. Her novel ‘To kill a mockingbird’ which deals with the issues of racism that were observed by the author as a child in her hometown was awarded the Pulitzer PrizeRead MoreInterpretation of the Text13649 Words   |  55 Pagesan expression of beliefs and values of a particular class. We can also see a work of literature as a selfcontained structure o f words - as writing that calls attention to itself, to its own images and forms. Viewed in this light, literature differs from other kinds of writing - expressive, persuasive, and expository. Expressive writing aims to articulate the feelings of the writer; persuasive writing seeks co influence the reader; expository writing tries to explain the outer world. By contrast, a

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Literary Fiction Analysis - 1102 Words

In the world of literature, fiction is often used to portray an entertaining story of a story they have a greater meaning to itself. There are two types of fiction Each of these stories falls on, which are commercial fiction, use to entertain us, as it tends to contain a setting that is easy to understand and a plot that is very distinct. This type of fiction is merely for enjoyment and doesnt have any deeper meaning to the story. In contrast with literary fiction where the stories is more character driven as we focus more on their minds and emotions, it contains a plot that usually underlines a social or cultural thread that impacts the story, however, is less obvious. When the audience reads these type of stories a first read isnt†¦show more content†¦Another aspect that shows its commercial fiction is the details of the protagonist which is Rainford who we find our has a vast experience on hunting â€Å"Ive read your book about the hunting snow leopards in Tibet, you see †(pg 72) as well once he was being hunted by Zaroff he had used tactics to kill him â€Å"... native trick he had learned in Uganda.† which gave Rainsford an advantage toward his opponent when it comes to hunting. The story is seen as commercial fiction because it is a book that is ment to grab our attention and entertain the reader. The only literary fiction out of the three stories is â€Å"Hunters in the Snow† by Tobias Wolff’s which follows three men Tubs, Kenny, and Francis who decide to go hunting in the winter. The plot of the story isnt as obvious compared to commercial fiction, we are put in the thought that these three men are going to hunt for deer, but in reality, they are men lost trying to find a solution towards their problem. Kenny can be seen as someone who wants to be feared and wants power as we see when they go and pick up Tubs â€Å"The truck jumped the curb and kept coming, half on the street and half on the sidewalk†(pg 86) which was heading straight towards him, until Tubs moved out of the way. AsShow MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis : Modern Detective Fiction1573 Words   |  7 PagesModern detective fiction has been employed cross-culturally predominantly with television media in recent decades as detective serve as reflections of cultural assumptions and values con veyed through the genre. Authors of new innovative storylines with unique characterizations and revitalizations of classic, ageless characters coincide to present new shift messages about crimes, the human element, and the detective. The comparable and divergent adaptations of detective genre is coming when comparingRead MoreLiterary Analysis: Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet as a Historical Fiction1280 Words   |  6 PagesLiterary Analysis: Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet as a Historical Fiction In Jamie Ford’s historical fiction Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet, this split narrative focuses on two eras: 1942 and 1986. Within these era’s, Ford’s novel focuses on a Chinese boy, Henry Lee, and what it was like to grow up in the international district with prejudice everywhere, especially in his own family being a first generation American. His novel tells the story of Henry, as well as a Japanese girlRead MoreDoes Fiction Build the Morality of Individuals and Societies, or Does It Break It Down?947 Words   |  4 Pagesspend an extensive amount of time engrossed in literary works, films, television shows and other forms of fiction. Some see this in a positive light, contending that fictitious stories cultivate our mental and moral development. Others however have argued that fiction is mentally and ethically obstructive. Posing the age old question: Does fiction build the morality of individuals and societies, or does it break it down? â€Å"The goal, I suppose, any fiction writer has, no matter what your subject, isRead MoreTruman Capote and Postmodernism1398 Words   |  6 Pagesas with penning great words, was a writer who became as well-known for his late-night talk show appearances as for his prose† (Patterson 1). Capote was a literary pop star at the height of his fame in 1966, after he had written such classic books as, Other Rooms, Other Voices, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and In Cold Blood. Postmodernism was a literary period that began after the Second World War and was a rejection of traditional writing techniques. It used fragmented sentences and questionable narratorsRead MoreLiterary Review of Bram Stokers Dracula Essay1230 Words   |  5 Pagesto the creation of the literary classic â€Å"Dracula†, Bram Stoker spent his time managing the Lyceum Theatre and legendary actor Henry Irving. According to Jennifer Dorn, when the novel was first published in 1897, critics regarded it as a â€Å"pulp fiction potboiler† (Dorn). The novels declaration as a literary masterpiece came many years later. A graduate of Trinity college, Stoker came from a middle class Irish family, the son of a civil servant. The publication â€Å"The Literary World of Bram Stoker,† byRead MoreEssay on Henry James The Art of Fiction647 Words   |  3 PagesHenry James The Art of Fiction In an essay written in response to an essay written by Walter Besant, both titled The Art of Fiction, Henry James provides both a new understanding of fiction and greater understand of his own works. James analyses, however briefly, the process of creation of a work of fiction, readers responses to it, and the requirements of the work and the author. James language within this essay may be in need of some levity, but he does occasionally break through theRead MoreThe Mystery Of Detective Fiction1648 Words   |  7 PagesDetective Fiction exists as one of the most popular fiction genres of all-time. Detective fiction uses facts and other details to solve a mystery which surrounds a perplexing murder in a novel. Many people gain excitement over a challenge or a test of knowledge when solving a puzzle. A puzzle may baffle or confuse the puzzler; therefore, the puzzler likes to solve the puzzle before the ending. People enjoy the experience of sheer satisfaction of solving a myste ry before ending the literary workRead MoreEssay about The Things They Carried Literary Analysis764 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis of The Things They Carried: Metafiction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Tim O’Brien brings the characters and stories to life in The Things They Carried. He uses a writing style that brings stories to life by posing questions between the relationship of reality and fiction (Calloway 249). This is called metafiction and it exposes the truth through the literary experience. Tim O’Brien uses metafiction to make the characters and stories in The Things They Carried realistically evocative of the VietnamRead MoreThe Lagoon By Joseph Conrad962 Words   |  4 Pagesin the Malayan Archipelago. The story exists as one of the earliest examples of the literary world’s slow nudge into the modern fictional literary movement. The short story earns its place in that category because of its use of the same characteristics found in modern fiction today. Those same characteristics cc an be found with some analysis of his short story. The Lagoon contains the elements of modern fiction within its theme, tone , setting, plot and characters. The theme of the story contributesRead MoreWomen Writers: Restoration and 18th Century1392 Words   |  6 PagesWomen Writers: Restoration and 18th Century Ballaster, Ros, Seductive Forms: Women’s Amatory Fiction from 1684–1740, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992,; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, Landry, Donna, The Muses of Resistance: Laboring-Class Women’s Poetry in Britain 1739–1796, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990 Myers, Sylvia Harcstark, The Bluestocking Circle: Friendship and the Life of the Mind in Eighteenth-Century England, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990; New York: Oxford

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cult of Thinness Free Essays

The author talks about the different ways in which the American popular culture, families, schools, peer groups, and the health and fitness industry undermine women’s self-confidence as they instill the notions that thinness is beauty and that a woman’s body is more important than her mind. She makes it known that there are many different factors as to why there is such a need to be thin these days and why there are so many eating disorders in our society. She blames the media as one of the leading contributing factors as to why our society is consumed with dieting, being thin, and body image and I agree with this. We will write a custom essay sample on Cult of Thinness or any similar topic only for you Order Now I believe that the media system is corrupt and it influences most of our perceptions, especially women. For example on magazine covers, there are usually pictures of women in bikinis, or even topless showing off their skinny bodies. And in beauty commercials, its usually skinny, tall women used to advertise beauty products. This images and frames are what is branded by media and society as â€Å"looking good† or â€Å"being sexy†; as a result of this, women especially adolescents and young adults compare themselves to these models and feel inadequate. They feel like that is how they are meant to look and may end up dieting or starving themselves or even in more tragic consequences undergo surgery. A 12 year old girl stated, â€Å"When I see those twigs of people in the magazines and on TV, I say, â€Å"I’m going to go on a diet. † You almost want to get thin just so you can wear the right clothes. I watch all my junior high friends – they look like something out of a magazine†. However, the author also talks about some cultures that think that voluptuous, curvy women are a sign of prosperity and also an indicator of their ability to cook and take care of their family How to cite Cult of Thinness, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Modernization and Westernization free essay sample

In Target Civil Services 2013 If you have the will to win, you have achieved half your success; if you don’t, you have achieved half your failure. – David Ambrose Home History Economy Polity Geography International Relation P. T (SPECIAL) Scien N T ech Tuesday, 16 October 2012 [Essay] Modernization and Westernization are not Identical Concepts Introduction The battle between the east and the west still continues as each try to preserve its culture and assert its powers. Just as the fight to be superpowers continues, the west and east continue to outdo each other in other aspects. The concept of modernization means an evolution from traditional society practices to modern social status. Modernization has brought about transformation of societies which has been experienced since time in history. The term modernization however, has been mistakably been taken to mean the adoption of policies that favor other societies. The changes have been witnessed in the political, economic production and social systems. In addition, it has also been reflected in the way of thinking and behavior of the people. In the twentieth century many transformations continues to change especially the open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API pdfcrowd. com most controversial issue of culture. Societies have remained attached to their practices and beliefs and any attempt to change them. This has remained a contentious issue when the east is approached to adopt policies from the west. They view this as colonization from the west which is blocked in every possible way. This paper tackles the question: Does modernization mean Westernization? It seeks to find out whether there are ways of becoming modern that are informed by different civilization logic. In answering this question it visits the issue of modernization in China in the twentieth century. Civilization brings about modernization; and civilization has historic start in Europe. The different civilizations such as the one rising from Tigris-Euphrates and Nile river valleys contributed a lot to the modern man. The Middle East in the 4000 B. C. E. also experienced civilization revolutions through agrarian revolutions. Technological innovations also characterized this period which contributed to better economic, political and social development. Consequently the changes contributed to the present day modernization. The Chinese Situation In China, modernization came into light during the new culture movement. In this period other terms were associated with modernization; they include westernization, electrification, mechanization, fashionable, and modern. Nevertheless, it was until the 1950s and 60s that the concept of modernization became accepted and used. During this period two western centric ideas were accepted which were; the impact response approach and the tradition modernity approach that contributed to the Chinese transformation. The tradition modernity approach had a direct influence to the modernization which was more known in the American society. Modernization had two practical purposes in the 1950s and 60s; they include to analyse the academic program so as to bring to an end to communism and secondly to give third world nations with a plan to achieve development of a stable, free and content world through the use of science, rationality, enlightenment, capitalist democracy and capitalistic free market. open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Popular Posts [Essay] Modernization and Westernization are not Identical Concepts Person in News :Pranay Sahay Retd Paramilitary staff gets exservicemen status India Signs Loan Agreement with World Bank for US$ 500 Million for Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Global Hunger Report 2012: India placed 65th Sistema issue: pdfcrowd. com The modernization was characterized in the 1950s and 60s by the split in the development in the modern and tradition period. The traditional period was described as stagnant and static while the modern period was described as rational, fast moving and dynamic. For that reason, modernization was viewed as the elimination of tradition. In those who supported modernization they saw China as incapable of transforming itself to be modern; it required an external shock which should be strong enough to initiate a modern revolution; the west had the chance to provide the enlightenment required for the transformation; and the effects of modernization in China would be to copy the west which was regarded as modern. Modernization Modernization can be traced to the historical development in Europe, since the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries there were major transformational changes. They included renaissance, scientific revolution, the age of great discovery, agrarian and industrial revolution, and enlightenment. In order to be modernized there are two preconditions involved; they are secularization and innovation. In secularization, man is required to have human value that means the satisfaction of practical needs and not accepting idealistic ideas. In adopting secularization man has stronger sense of reality, rationality, and active in social matters. Innovation on the other hand, requires casting away traditional ideologies. In real meaning, modernization moves man from a spiritual or god centered society to a man centered one. It turns out to be rational and scientific. Modernization also brings the issue of enlightenment which brings about a political and social rearrangement that is based on rationality, science and development. For example, the capitalistic system, a liberal democratic system and sovereignty need to be involved. Modernization means industrialization that is built on science and technological revolutions. Science makes man understand the world while technology gives the tools to have a better world. This means that the quality of life is improved contributing to a modern society. Western form of modernization is measured with mechanization regarding to open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Sistema issue: India hopes agreeable solution â€Å"European Golden Boot† to Lionel Messi [Essay] Is Gandhian Mode of Protest (Satyagraha) still relevant? Free generic drugs via public hospitals; Three fold increase in the allocation to health sector in the 12th Plan Rehabilitation of Children Under NCLP Scheme Followers Join this site w ith Google Friend Connect Members (1) Already a member? Sign in pdfcrowd. com production modes, urbanization, mass participation in public issues, affirmative action, education popularization, expansion of infrastructure i. e. transport and communication, bureaucracy and international relationships enhancement. In this view modernization is gauged with the amenities and provisions in the country. For modern transformation the country must therefore undergo economic, political, and cultural transformation. Economically, the country needs to transform from traditional agriculture practices to modern industrial practices. Politically, the country must move from dictatorial and feudal autocratic practices to free and fair democratic society. Culturally, the society needs to move from uncivilized groups into conscious individualism so as to have independence. The democratic view of modernization is the ability to estrict power by use of law, having multi-party rule, having security forces to protect the state, democratic elections, accountability of the government, decentralizing the functions and having participants of the people. The traditional Chinese culture had entrenched three bonds which were (between ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife), and five relationships between ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother, a nd friends. The society had focus on family, male domination, patriarchy, agriculture and household industry. Changing this would need great and strong force of modernization. Does modernization mean Westernization? Separating modernization from westernization is the issue that lies in the mind; whichever side of the debate one is then he or she can give contradicting statements to prove a point. Many will debate on the loss of culture and the imitation of the western culture as modernization while others will base their argument on the adoption of democracy and a free society. The modern societies have a great deal of common aspects however they never merge into homogeneity. Some have the assumption that the modern civilization is the same as the western civilization and consequently western civilizations is the same as modern civilization. This conversely, is not true. This is due to the fact that the western has always been even before open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Blog Archive ÐŽ 2012 (121) November (29) ÐŽ October (92) Oct 30 (5) Oct 29 (5) Oct 28 (1) Oct 27 (3) Oct 26 (8) Oct 25 (2) Oct 24 (15) Oct 23 (2) Oct 21 (9) Oct 20 (3) Oct 19 (3) Oct 18 (2) Oct 17 (5) ÐŽ Oct 16 (7) [Essay]Imp act of Moderniz ation and Westerniz ation SC green signal to resumptio pdfcrowd. com modernization. The western culture has been seen to be based on philosophy and rationalism of the Greek, the law of the Romans, natural law, the Latin language the rift between Catholics and Protestants and social pluralism. The cultures of the west have not been well accepted in the east in areas like China, Russia, and the Middle East, where centralized bureaucracy and absolutism exists. To the east the adoption of such culture and values would be colonization and modern day slavery. The social and political values depicted as western civilization are therefore rebelled against. The values view as western modernization include liberty, individualism, equality, free markets, capitalism, constitutionalism, separation of the church and state, the rule of law, human rights and democracy. This creates a democracy paradox; where the Islamic world and the east in general oppose westernization. The question at hand (i. e. Does modernization mean Westernization? will help to separate modernization from westernization. Depending on which perspective it is either west or east the argument may last forever but to draw a line and separate the real ideologies can help solve the dilemma of whether the glass is half full or half empty. Can one modernize without being western? As the time passes on the differences between the cultures become less and less; the gap therefore closes. But in the modern society many may resist this change seeing it as colonization. Nevertheless, change is inevitable and as technological and industrial revolutions are adopted the enlightenment period get closer with people demanding their rights. This means that the society will crave for change. However the adoption does not mean a complete merger of the cultures to one global culture. There will always be real and significant differences in the modernization. For example, the democracy, communism, and fascism were modern political systems and since democracy has been adopted by the west does not mean it is westernization. There is therefore need to differentiate the western influence from the modernization in the west. Though modernization may seen by the east as aping the west; the critical part is the difference between the two areas. There are still differences even after modernization since the family values; the social obligations and the meaning of life remain different open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API resumptio n of tourism in Tiger President of Mauritius to be the Chief Guest of 11 Iran denies U. S. llegation of cyber attack Person in News :First woman chief of AU takes char [Essay] Moderniz ation and Westerniz ation are not I National Security Advisor Releases Joint Working G Oct 15 (2) Oct 14 (6) pdfcrowd. com from the west. Their cultures have the various differences which are always unique to the areas and the people practicing them. This brings the cultural identity which is always maintained even after modernization. Modernization and wester nization Societies have defied all odds to modernize despite the negative notion brought by those who oppose change. Westernizing and modernizing have already been differentiated by a clear line. While modernizing is the adoption of technology and industrial revolutions; westernization on the other hand is the adoption of the western culture and ideas. Therefore for those who modernize does not have to adopt the western cultures. They just need to maintain their own culture but retain the ideologies of the modern world. The revolutionizing of people and societies is normally seen as the western culture where governments in the east want to retain the status quo and remain dictatorial. For modernization to take place there must be minimum requirements which include; industrialization, urbanization, occupational social structures that are complex and diverse, rational, effective and efficient economic groups, revolutionary decisions, education of the masses, efficient communication systems, centralization and global economic participation. Above all there must be social and political will; which might incorporate western values such as liberty, human rights, constitutionalism, secularization, democracy, equality and free markets. Citizens from the oppressed nations must therefore be able to distinguish the lies from the truth. Modern day civilization is not just a matter of aping what people want and fighting freedom; it is all about adopting the values that revolutionize society and give them a chance to discover themselves. The East especially the Islamic nations has particularly remained cold in adopting the western values more specifically due to the religion factor which is seen as an overtaking of the Muslim religion and culture by the Christian practices and norms. For a global village to be achieved there is need for most nations to adopt modernization and play away all difference. On the other hand, it does not mean open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API Oct 14 (6) Oct 13 (4) Oct 12 (6) Oct 11 (2) Oct 10 (1) Oct 09 (1) Labels ESSAY My Thought Persons in News Total Pageviews 2 3 7 3 pdfcrowd. com forgetting their culture but it means retaining it and preserving what is beneficial to the society. Every person needs to given the right to decide his or her own destiny while the state controls the nation in a democratic way. The people should have the freedom to decide in fair elections and be able to exercise their democratic rights. It also tends to abolish communism and assert democracy in a society that is oppressed. Conclusion Modernization does not mean aping the law, politics, lifestyles, language, religion, and education systems. But, it entails empowering the societies to decide what they need and want at all times. It involves making their lives easier through revolutions such as industrialization which will make them change from the traditional practices to modern concepts. The west has been viewed as very revolutionary and dynamic in the adoption of new ideas; the east on the other hand has been seen to oppose change. In view of the fact that modernization started in the west does not mean that the east should ape them. The clear separation of modernization from westernization is the only factor that will ensure the societies in the east are not lied to by their leaders. The east can experience better economic, political and social benefits if only they embrace modernization. They should use modernization to ensure the cultural and social values are always preserved within the society. This is the unique character of modernization; it does not strive to change the individual but the means of the individual to live. It is also good since it allows individuals to discover themselves, their strengths and weaknesses which will contribute to better control of the system. The east does not have to worry on adopting the western culture rather what the modernization does to the economic, social and political norms. Posted by sonu kumar at Tuesday, October 16, 2012 Recommend this on Google 15 comments: open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? 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Tuesday, March 24, 2020

“Because I Could Not Stop for Death” free essay sample

Dickinson greets death in the first and second stanza as a carriage (hearse) awaits in a respectful manner, taking its time to make the journey to the cemetery. She is then taken through her stages of life in the third stanza as the carriage makes its journey. In the lines â€Å" we passed the school, where children strove at recess †, the deceased is reunited with their youthful memories, playing with friends, going to school. The next line â€Å" we passed the fields of gazing grain symbolize adulthood and maturity as the gazing grain itself is ripe. The following line â€Å" we passed the setting sun † suggests Dickinson’s descent into death. As Miss Dickinson continues on her journey to the afterlife she is overcome with a chill. The lines â€Å" the dews grew quivering and chill, for only gossamer my gown, my tippet only tulle † highlights the gown she was wearing, which may have been more appropriate for a wedding rather than a funeral. We will write a custom essay sample on â€Å"Because I Could Not Stop for Death† or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Dickinson describes her grave as a house in the following lines â€Å" e paused before a house that seemed a swelling of the ground † which represent a sense of acceptance of her new life. The overall theme of Emily Dickinson’s poem â€Å"Because I Could Not Stop For Death† is to accept death as part of the life cycle. She encourages the reader to enjoy the time they have, unlike herself who dwelled on her aloneness. Dickinson uses various poetic devices throughout this poem. For instance, Dickinson uses personification to give the reader a sense that death is a polite male. The carriage ride introduced in lines 3 and 4 are used as a metaphor to the final passage of death. She also uses personification to say that Immortality joins them on the ride, as if he were in the passenger seat and Death was the driver. The sunset was used to foreshadow death. The mood changed after the sunset as dark and chills set over Emily’s body. The house is then used as a metaphor as her final resting place. She allows readers to relate to the idea of death as a comfort by using a house to describe the grave instead of a dark, scary, noisome casket and body.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Ocean Acidification Definition

Ocean Acidification Definition The oceans have reduced the effects of global warming for thousands of years by absorbing carbon dioxide. Now the basic chemistry of the oceans is changing because of our activities, with devastating consequences for marine life. What Causes Ocean Acidification? Its no secret that global warming is a major issue. A main cause of global warming is our release of carbon dioxide, primarily through the burning of fossil fuels and the burning of vegetation. Over time, the oceans have helped this problem by absorbing excess carbon dioxide. According to NOAA, the oceans have absorbed nearly half of the fossil fuel emissions weve generated over the past 200 years. As the carbon dioxide is absorbed, it reacts with the ocean water to form carbonic acid. This process is called ocean acidification. Over time, this acid causes the pH of the oceans to decrease, making ocean water more acidic. This can have drastic consequences on corals and other marine life, with cascading impacts on the fishing and tourism industries. More About pH and Ocean Acidification The term pH is a measure of acidity. If youve ever had an aquarium, you know that pH is important, and pH needs to be adjusted to optimal levels for your fish to thrive. The ocean has an optimal pH, too. As the ocean becomes more acidic, it becomes more difficult for corals and organisms to build skeletons and shells using calcium carbonate. In addition, the process of acidosis, or buildup of carbonic acid in body fluids, may affect fish and other marine life by compromising their ability to reproduce, breathe and fight diseases. How Bad is the Ocean Acidification Problem? On a pH scale, 7 is neutral, with 0 the most acidic and 14 the most basic. The historical pH of sea water is about 8.16, leaning on the basic side of the scale.The pH of our oceans has fallen to 8.05 since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. While this may not seem like a big deal, this is a change greater in magnitude than any time in the 650,000 years before the Industrial Revolution. The pH scale is also logarithmic, so that slight change in pH results in a 30 percent increase in acidity. Another problem is that once the oceans get their fill of carbon dioxide, scientists think the oceans could become a carbon dioxide source, rather than a sink. This means the ocean will contribute to the global warming problem by adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Life The effects of ocean acidification can be dramatic and far-reaching, and will affect animals such as fish, shellfish, corals, and plankton. Animals such as clams, oysters, scallops, urchins and corals that rely on calcium carbonate to build shells will have a difficult time building them, and protecting themselves as the shells will be weaker. In addition to having weaker shells, mussels will also have a reduced ability to grip  as the increased acid weakens their byssal threads. Fish will also need to adapt to the changing pH and work harder to remove acid out of its blood, which can impact other behaviors, such as reproduction, growth and food digestion. On the other hand, some animals such as lobsters and crabs may adapt well as their shells become stronger in more acidic water. Many of the possible effects of ocean acidification are unknown or still being studied. What Can We Do About Ocean Acidification? Lowering our emissions will help the ocean acidification problem, even if that just slows the impacts long enough to give species time to adapt. Read the Top 10 Things You Can Do to Reduce Global Warming for ideas on how you can help. Scientists have acted swiftly on this issue. The response has included the Monaco Declaration,  in which 155 scientists from 26 countries declared in January 2009 that: Ocean acidification is accelerating and severe damages are imminent;Ocean acidification will have broad socioeconomic impacts, affecting marine food webs, causing substantial changes in commercial fish stocks and threatening food security for millions of people;Ocean acidification is rapid, but recovery is slow;Ocean acidification can be controlled only by limiting future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The scientists called for intense efforts to research the problem, evaluate its impacts and cut emissions drastically to help curb the problem. Sources: Fabry, V.J., Seibel, B.A., Feely, R.A. and J.C. Orr. 2008. . Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journalof Marine Science, 65: 414–432.Feely, R.A., Sabine, C.L, and V.J. Fabry. 2006. Carbon Dioxide and Our Ocean Legacy. (Online) NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Science Brief. Accessed March 7, 2009.McAuliffe, K. 2008. Ocean Acidification: A Global Case of Osteoporosis. (Online) Discover. Accessed March 7, 2009.Monaco Declaration. 2008. Monaco Declaration on Oceans. Accessed July 21, 2015.Smithsonian Ocean Portal. Ocean Acidification.  Accessed July 21, 2015.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Have our hegemonic ideas of masculinity changed Answer this question Essay

Have our hegemonic ideas of masculinity changed Answer this question by comparing and contrasting the representation of mascul - Essay Example The interaction of man with the media and communication tends to create a crisis, with the un-tenability of conceptualized single, fixed and unified masculinity. In the film Michael Clayton, there is the depiction of masculinity as a ruthless force, with highly realistic dominance in the courts of law. There is a perception of self-drive and control in the main character, Michael Clayton, brings down alternatives and preferences in his clients as a way of exchanging their fantasies with unjustified justice. Many clients believe that Michael works miracles in the law field, though he is a self-proclaimed janitor. Male masculinity is, hereby, depicted as having changed hegemonically, with the portrayal of a super power in the masculine main character, Michael, who mysteriously succeeds in his law career by winning his cases. In the Searchers film, there is the depiction of male masculinity as cruel and racist. The main character, who is a white man, is a violent character that interact s with people from other races by killing them. The film brings out the perspective of typical racism in the notion of terrorism, with the tarnished hegemonic ideas of the male masculinity in the media fraternity clearly depicted. Racism is the main theme of The Searchers, which also questions the morality levels and quality in the planning and carrying out of terrorism. The film surprisingly and amazingly explores the relations between blood-related individuals and those who have a race in common. Kinship is depicted as a wise choice for masculinity between relationships with blood-related individuals and individuals of the same race. The main character believes that he cannot make any relations or deals with the Indians due to their race and culture, and should rather kill them than make deals, or interact with them. This brings about changed hegemonic perceptions and ideas of masculinity through the media and communication. Racism is highly associated with male masculinity, with many race abuses proven to originate from the males. This is clearly depicted in the Searchers, whereby, the whites brutally kill the Indians, and bring up a racist myth. The Whites consider themselves a superior and dominant race over the Indians, in the movies and the inevitably real situation, and treat racism as a comic channel. This leaves the Indians humiliated if not dead, and turns racism into a horror situation. The media and mass communication industry tends to bring the changed hegemonic ideas about masculinity to light, with the controversial consideration of racism as a comedy rather than a tragedy or timebomb. In the Trailer film, Clayton works closely with the head of the law firm, Marty Bash, as an anchor in intelligence, authority and masculinity. This strongly angers a top partner in the firm, who strips naked and runs through the snowed parking lot, during a deposition hearing. This is a clear example of changed hegemonic ideas in masculinity in the media sector. Arthur is loaded with the testifying responsibility of delivering justice, which is questioned after he strips and runs naked in the parking lot. Male masculinity has faced a changed perception, both in the media sector and in the real world, which has led to the domination of feminity in journalism and mass media. Male actors and characters in the film industry